Ttapered roller wheel bearings are used in pickup trucks and truck-based SUVs, some cars as well as in some trailers.
Tapered roller bearings are installed in pairs; two bearings per wheel. This type of wheel bearings need to be serviced in regular intervals. Typically the service includes repacking the bearings with new grease and adjusting the bearing pre-tension. Servicing tapered roller wheel bearings can cost from $120 to $230 per wheel. Both sides of one axle are serviced at the same time.
A bad or worn-out tapered wheel bearing can produce a humming noise that is more pronounced at higher speeds. In some cars, worn-out or out-of-adjustment bearings can cause knocking noise when driving over bumps. Bad tapered roller bearings must be replaced. Tapered roller bearing replacement is a bit more expensive: $240-$320 per wheel.
A throttle body controls the air flow into the engine intake. In a modern car, a throttle body contains a built-in electric motor or actuator that through the gears precisely operates the throttle valve (the gold-colored plate in the photo). There is also a built-in throttle position sensor that monitors the angle of the throttle valve. In older cars, the throttle was controlled by a cable. In late-model cars, the throttle is controlled electronically by the engine computer. When a driver depresses the accelerator pedal, the engine computer receives the signal from the accelerator pedal sensor.
Based on this signal the engine computer commands the throttle body motor to open the throttle valve at needed angle. One of the most common problem is when a throttle body gets dirty, as the carbon deposits clog the throttle valve and restrict the air flow. This can cause various problems including rough idle, stalling, as well as the Check Engine light coming on in the instrument panel. A dirty throttle body will need to be cleaned with a special carb spray cleaner, which is not a very expensive service. If any part of the throttle body fails, whether the throttle sensor or the throttle drive motor, it's replaced as an assembly.
A timing belt is a toothed belt that connects the engine crankshaft to the camshaft or camshafts.
A timing belt synchronizes the camshaft to the crankshaft position, so the valves will open and close at the proper timing in relation to the position of the pistons. The camshaft rotates at exactly 1/2 speed of the crankshaft; meaning two revolutions of the crankshaft are equal to one revolution of the camshaft.
In some engines a timing belt can also drive additional components such as a water pump, balance shaft, intermediate shaft, injection pump and an oil pump. A balance shaft, an intermediate shaft and an injection pump must also be synchronised with a crankshaft.
To work properly a timing belt needs to be under certain tension that is controlled by a timing belt tensioner. Some older cars have an adjustable timing belt tensioner that must be re-adjusted if the timing belt gets loose. Newer cars have an automatic timing belt tensioner that doesn't need any adjustment. If the timing belt gets loose, it may skip a tooth and the proper timing will be lost.
When a timing belt is replaced, it's very important to set the timing properly. Before a new timing belt is installed, the crankshaft, the camshaft and other components synchronised with a crankshaft must be aligned in a certain way. A repair manual has proper instructions and a diagram with timing marks. Improperly set timing will cause a variety of problems such as lack of power, Check Engine light, vibration, misfiring, etc.
Not all cars have a timing belt - many newer cars use a timing chain instead of a belt. A timing belt wears out over time and needs to be replaced at a certain mileage. A timing chain can last as long as the engine itself and doesn't need to be replaced unless there is a problem with it. If you don't know if your vehicle has a timing belt or a chain, you can check your owner's manual. If you don't have an owner's manual, many car manufacturers offer to download it from their websites. Here is the link: Where to download an owner's manual. You also can call your local dealer service department or ask your mechanic - they have this information.
A timing belt must be replaced at recommended by the manufacturer intervals, usually from 60,000 miles to 105,000 miles (from 96,000 km to 168,000 km). You can find the recommended replacement interval in your owner's manual. In addition, the timing belt must be replaced if it has any damage like cracks (see the picture), cuts, or if it is soaked in oil leaking from the engine, or if it shows any signs of excessive wear. If not replaced in time, the timing belt can break. If you are approaching the mileage for a timing belt change, or if you bought a used car and you don't know if the timing belt has been replaced, it's good idea to have your mechanic to inspect the timing belt condition.
If a timing belt breaks, the engine will no longer work. If a timing belt breaks while driving in an interference engine, the camshaft stops turning leaving some of the engine valves in the open position. The heavier crankshaft will continue to rotate by inertia moving pistons up and down. This will cause the pistons to strike the valves that left open. This may result in a heavy damage to the engine with broken or bent valves, damaged pistons and, possibly, destroyed cylinder head and block.
The damage will be less extensive in a non-interference engine but in either case, the engine will stall, leaving you stranded.
You can check the "Timing Belts" section of Gates.com website to see if you have and an interference or non-interference engine.
The cost to replace a timing belt may vary from about $200 to $750 depending on a model. Often your mechanic may recommend replacing a water pump or some other parts, such as, a tensioner, seals idlers, etc. along with the timing belt; this obviously will cost more. You can just call your local dealer service department or a repair shop for an estimate.
A: When the timing belt is replaced, the new belt must be set according to the timing marks so the camshaft(s) will be precisely timed with a crankshaft. Each vehicle has a way to align the timing belt with the camshaft(s) and the crankshaft. In some cars, the intermediate shaft or the balance shaft must also be aligned with a camshaft and the crankshaft. If you don't have the service manual, one way to set the timing is to mark the position of all sprockets with the old belt still installed and then use those marks to set the new belt properly. Of course it's best to use the service manual, as it has all the diagrams.
A timing chain performs the same function as a timing belt: it drives the engine camshaft(s), at the same time precisely synchronizing the camshaft rotation to the crankshaft. The timing chain is made of metal links connected to each other; very similar to a bicycle chain.
The common question is when does the timing chain need to be replaced? The timing chain only needs to be replaced if it's worn or stretched or there is some other problem with it; there are no recommended service intervals. If the timing chain is stretched, it may cause various driveability issues like hard starting, lack of power, misfiring, etc.
A stretched timing chain can also produce humming or rattling noises. A timing chain runs inside the engine and is lubricated by engine oil. It will last longer if the engine is well maintained and oil is changed regularly.