The engine Bank is the group of cylinders aligned together. The term Bank 1 usually refers to the bank of the engine that contains the cylinder number 1.
In an in-line 4-cylinder engine cylinders are grouped together, so there is typically only one bank (Bank 1), although in some cars even an in-line 4-cylinder engine might be split in two banks.
A V6 or V8 engine has two banks (see the diagram), each with three or four cylinders respectively. Usually, in a V6 or V8 engine, the bank that contains the cylinder 1 is called Bank 1 and the opposite bank is called Bank 2. Unfortunately, there is no standard practice to identify bank 1 and bank 2, as different manufacturers assign bank numbers differently. In most front-wheel drive cars with a transversely-installed V6 engine, bank 1 is closer to the firewall, while the bank 2 is closer to the front of the vehicle.
The battery provides electric power to start the car. If your car doesn't start, the battery is the first thing that needs to be checked. If you have no testing equipment, here is another way to check the battery state of charge: Without starting the engine, turn the windshield wipers on. If the battery is low on charge, you will notice that your wipers move slowly, much slower than usual. You also may notice that lights on the dash appear dim. If your battery is low on charge, it needs to be recharged. When the car is running, the battery charges automatically from the power supplied by the alternator. To start a car with a discharged battery, the car needs to be boosted. On average, the battery lasts from 3 to 6 years. It lasts longer if the car is driven daily. If the car is parked for a long time without starting, the battery deteriorates faster. An early sign of the deteriorated battery is slow cranking when starting the vehicle.
Let's face it: you can have the most meticulously-maintained vehicle on the road, but it won't start without the right battery, properly installed and appropriately fitted for your driving needs. From ignition to door locks, your car battery is the catalyzing force that allows you to get from point A to point B. The following is a brief overview of the electrical system that makes transportation possible:
Composed of a series of lead plates submerged in a 35% sulfuric acid/65% water solution, your 12-volt battery houses a chemical reaction that releases electrons through conductors, producing electricity which is then channeled into your vehicle's electrical system. When your car's engine is off, the battery supplies electricity to all of the electrical system components, including the essential power required to start your vehicle. In periods of high demand, the battery also supplements power from the charging system.
2. Charging System
The charging system is life force of your vehicle's electrical system, consisting of three main mechanisms: the alternator, various circuits, and the voltage regulator. The alternator has two roles. It: a) provides power to the electrical system, and b) recharges the battery after the car has started. The various circuits act as conduits for electrical power, and the voltage regulator controls the voltage passed through these circuits. Remember, all of these components require consistent attention and maintenance. It's not just your battery that needs to be replaced every so often; if one of these components should fail, that pulsating power source is now reduced to a lifeless, twenty pound paper weight.
3. Starting System:
It may seem obvious that the starting system turns your vehicle's engine on, but did you know that this process consumes much more electrical power than anything else your car does? That's because the starting system consists of three components working one after another. Here's how it works: there's the ignition switch, the starter relay (or solenoid), and the starter motor. Turning the key causes a small amount of current to pass through the starter relay, allowing a stronger current to flow through the battery cables and into the starter motor. The starter motor cranks the engine, forcing the piston to create enough suction that draws a fuel and air mixture into the cylinder. The ignition system creates a spark that ignites the mixture, and combustion is born.
Our ASE certified technicians take professionalism to the next level by offering courteous and knowledgeable service to all of our customers. Continually striving to master every aspect of automotive care, ASE technicians follow Motorist Assurance Program Uniform Inspection Guidelines for your vehicle's braking system to assure safe, smooth driving.
When your mechanic is wearing the ASE patch, don't expect to get to know him…you won't be back in a long time! That's because our ASE technicians do the job right the first time. They inspect the following braking components:
• Disc brake rotors and pads
• Calipers and hardware
• Brake drums and shoes
• Wheel cylinders
• Return springs
• Master cylinder
• Brake fluid and hoses
• Power booster
The brake system equipped in your vehicle is a culmination of over 100 years of technological innovation, transforming crude stopping mechanisms into dependable and efficient pieces of speed variation equipment. While brake systems vary by make and model, the basic system consists of disc brakes in front, and either disk or drum brakes in the rear. Connected by a series of tubes and hoses, your brakes are linked to each wheel and the master cylinder by said network, which supply them with vital brake fluid (hydraulic fluid).
We'll take a closer look on how this works, but first we'll provide a brief overview of the critical components that make braking possible. We can summarize all of your braking equipment into two categories:
When it comes to your vehicle, think of the master cylinder as a pressure converter. When you press down on the brake pedal (physical pressure) the master cylinder converts this to hydraulic pressure. This pressure is used to propel brake fluid to the wheel brakes.
Brake Lines and Hoses:
Steel braided brake lines and high pressure, shock, and road resistant brake hoses are the channels which deliver pressurized brake fluid to the braking unit(s) at each wheel.
Wheel Cylinders and Calipers:
Wheel cylinders consist of cylinders surrounded by two rubber-sealed pistons that connect the piston with the brake shoe. When brake pressure is applied, pistons are forced out, pushing the shoes into the drum. Calipers squeeze brake pads onto the rotor to stop your car. Both components apply pressure to friction materials.
Disc Brake Pads and Drum Brake Shoes:
A disc brake uses fluid (released by the master cylinder) to force pressure into a caliper, where it presses against a piston. The piston then squeezes two brake pads against the rotor, forcing it to stop. Brake shoes consist of a steel shoe with a steel shoe with friction material bonded to it.
How it comes together:
When you first step on the brake pedal, you are triggering the release of brake fluid into the system of tubes and hoses, which travel to the braking unit at each wheel. This is because you actually push against a plunger in the master cylinder, causing the fluid to be released. Now because brake fluid can't be compressed, it journeys through the network of tubes and hoses in the exact same motion and pressure it initially began with. And when it comes to stopping a 2,000 pound steel assembly at high speed, this consistency is a good thing. But the performance of your brakes can be affected when air is introduced into the fluid; since air can compress, it creates sponginess in the pedal, which disrupts this consistency, and results in bad braking efficiency. The good news is that "bleeder screws" (located at each wheel cylinder) can be removed so that the brake system is "bled" to remove any unwanted air found in your system.
A catalytic converter is a very important part of the vehicle emission control system. A catalytic converter is installed in the exhaust, right after the exhaust manifold. Inside the catalytic converter, there is a honeycomb-like ceramic block covered by a special catalyst material. The main purpose of the catalytic converter is to chemically convert harmful exhaust emissions into harmless gases. Without a catalytic converter, the vehicle won't pass the emission test.
The engine computer constantly monitors the performance of the catalytic converter. For this purpose, there are two oxygen sensors installed before and after the catalytic converter. These sensors measure the level of oxygen before and after the catalytic converter. The engine computer compares the signals from both sensors and if it the catalytic converter doesn't perform properly, the engine computer illuminates the "Check Engine" light on the dash. Replacing the catalytic converter is very expensive.